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Entity Manager

Quite often it's necessary to store data in Home Assistant using entities. This can be useful to store custom sensors with values you have acquired from an API or even your own calculations. These entities can then be further used in other automation in NetDaemon and/or Home Assistant.

This extension enables you to Create, Update and Remove entities in Home Assistant leveraging MQTT Discovery.



If you use the NetDaemon project template you will already have the entity manager available and you can skip this setup.

To set up the entity manager manually you should:

  • Include the NetDaemon.Extensions.MqttEntityManager NuGet package:
dotnet add package NetDaemon.Extensions.Mqtt
  • Call .UseNetDaemonMqttEntityManagement() on the HostBuilder in the host's program.cs:
await Host.CreateDefaultBuilder(args)
// More Host Extensions
.UseNetDaemonMqttEntityManagement() // <---
.ConfigureServices((_, services) =>
// More Service Extensions
  • Update your appsettings.json with a new section:
"Logging": {
// more config
"NetDaemon": {
// more config
"Mqtt": {
"Host": "ENTER YOUR IP TO your MQTT Broker"

Optional Mqtt Parameters:

  • Port - default 1883
  • UserName - default null
  • Password - default null
  • DiscoveryPrefix - default homeassistant

Injecting the Entity Manager

You can get an instance of the IMqttEntityManager interface simply by injecting it into your apps constructor

using NetDaemon.Extensions.MqttEntityManager;
using NetDaemon.Extensions.MqttEntityManager.Models;

private readonly IMqttEntityManager _entityManager;

class MyApp(IMqttEntityManager entityManager)
_entityManager = entityManager;
// ...

Entity Management API

The extension currently offers the following methods:

  1. CreateAsync(..) - allows you to create an entity in Home Assistant
  2. SetStateAsync(...) - sets the state of an entity
  3. SetAttributesAsync(...) - sets a collection of attributes on an entity
  4. SetAvailabilityAsync(...) - sets the availability of an entity
  5. RemoveAsync(..) - allows you to remove an entity that has been created through this extension
  6. PrepareCommandSubscriptionAsync(..) - returns an observable string that you can subscribe to for command updates

In addition, the extension has a single property QualityOfServiceLevel which allows you to set the QoS level of the MQTT message that will be transmitted. See this article for more information.

Each of the methods operates on an entityId, which is a standard Home Assistant identifier of the format "{domain}.{identifier}", for example "sensor.kitchen_temperature". When you create an entity you should strive to use a unique identifier for each domain.

Please do bear in mind that the extension is using MQTT to create entities and so you must be aware of both the Home Assistant and the MQTT requirements with regards to creating and updating entities. You can find more information of the domains and device classes supported by MQTT and this extension in the official MQTT documentation, however, this is noted just for reference. The complexities around topic subscription are handled for you within the extension.

Creating entities

To create an entity you call the following method:

Task CreateAsync(string entityId, EntityCreationOptions? options = null, object? additionalConfig = null);

The only mandatory argument is the entityId, which is of the format "domain.identifier" - see the previous section for more information.


Depending on the domain, you may need to supply additional parameters. See the Home Assistant Entity documentation for specific details.

The optional EntityCreationOptions allows you to override the following parameters:

DeviceClassstringThe device class, which is required for some domains (see the official documentation)null
UniqueIdstringA unique identifier for the entity across the MQTT namespaceCombination of domain and identifier
NamestringA friendly name that is displayed in the HA user interfaceIdentifier part of entityId
PersistboolWhether the entity should persist over HA restartstrue
PayloadAvailablestringThe payload that defines if an entity is availablenull
PayloadNotAvailablestringThe payload that defines an entity is not availablenull
PayloadOnstringThe payload that defines the "on" state"ON"
PayloadOffstringThe payload that defines the "off" state"OFF"

As well as the EntityCreationOptions you can supply additional configuration via the additionalConfig argument. This is any kind of object that can be serialized to JSON and its contents are sent as part of the payload when creating the entity.

You can use additionalConfig to supply additional parameters that might be required by some device classes that do not have corresponding properties in the EntityCreationOptions class. See the examples below for more information.


When creating entities ensure:

See the section below for more information on working with entity availability.

Setting the state of an entity

Use the SetStateAsync() method to set an entity's state:

Task SetStateAsync(string entityId, string state);

The arguments are:

  • entityId the "domain.identifier" format entity ID supplied in the CreateAsync() method
  • state any string value, including a blank string

Setting attributes on an entity

Use the SetAttributesAsync() method to set an entity's attributes:

Task SetAttributesAsync(string entityId, object attributes);

The arguments are:

  • entityId the "domain.identifier" format entity ID supplied in the CreateAsync() method
  • attributes a concrete or anonymous object that can be serialized to JSON

Working with entity availability

When you create an entity without specifying availability payloads it is assumed to be permanently available. This can be helpful when you are using the entity to store state or attributes that you will use in other automations as you don't need to worry about marking it available before use.

On the other hand, if you are using an entity as they were originally intended (i.e. to represent state of a physical device or sensor) then you may want to set it available and unavailable depending on the state of the hardware or device service.

This is easy to configure - all you need to do is specify the payloads that mark it as available and unavailable when you create it, then call SetAvailabilityAsync() to set its availability with one of these payloads.

To do this, set both the PayloadAvailable and PayloadNotAvailable properties on the EntityCreationOptions when you create the entity:

await entityManager.CreateAsync("domain.sensor", 
new EntityCreationOptions(PayloadAvailable: "up", PayloadNotAvailable: "down"))

This configures the entity to have an availability state, which you will set by passing it one of the two payloads you just defined. To set the availability, use SetAvailabilityAsync:

Task SetAvailabilityAsync(string entityId, string availability);

Using the above example, we can toggle a device to be available and then unavailable like this:

await entityManager.SetAvailabilityAsync("domain.sensor", "up").ConfigureAwait(false);
await entityManager.SetAvailabilityAsync("domain.sensor", "down").ConfigureAwait(false);

Carefully consider whether you need to use availability on an entity. If you enable it then it becomes your responsibility to ensure that the availability is set correctly before attempting to read or update its state or configuration. An entity that is marked unavailable is... not available!

Removing entities

You can delete an entity that has been created via this extension by calling the RemoveAsync method:

Task RemoveAsync(string entityId);

The entityId argument has the same format as in the previous methods.

Subscribing to command updates

Note that this method allows you to subscribe to command updates and should not be confused with the far more extensive subscription capabilities defined within the HassModel API. You would typically use this method with switches to subscribe to their "on" and "off" commands - see the examples for more info.

The PrepareCommandSubscriptionAsync method creates an Observable<string> that you can subscribe to:

Task<IObservable<string>> PrepareCommandSubscriptionAsync(string entityId);

To use this with a switch we can subscribe to the command and then use that to toggle the switch's state:

(await _entityManager.PrepareCommandSubscriptionAsync(switch1Id).ConfigureAwait(false))
.Subscribe(new Action<string>(async state =>
await _entityManager.SetStateAsync(switch1Id, state).ConfigureAwait(false);

Basic examples

In the NetDaemon project template there is an example that demonstrates the functionality of the entity manager at \dev\DebugHost\apps\Extensions\MqttEntityManagerApp.cs

Below are some additional examples:

Creating a simple sensor

await _entityManager.CreateAsync("sensor.basic_sensor").ConfigureAwait(false);

Creating a simple binary sensor

await _entityManager.CreateAsync("binary_sensor.basic_sensor",
new EntityCreationOptions(DeviceClass: "connectivity"))

See here for examples of Binary Sensor Device Classes

Overriding the default unique ID and name

await _entityManager.CreateAsync("sensor.my_id",
new EntityCreationOptions(UniqueId: "special_id", Name: "A special kind of sensor"))

Switches require a device class

await _entityManager.CreateAsync("switch.kitchen_lights",
new EntityCreationOptions(Name: "Kitchen lights switch", DeviceClass: "switch"))

Pressing a switch sends a command, it doesn't set state

When you press a switch in the Home Assistant UI it does not automatically generate a state change. Instead it sends a command that you would have to subscribe to so that you can decide whether to set its state.

If you think about a physical device switch, this makes sense: pressing a switch to on sends a command to a device to have it turn itself on. If that device successfully turns on then the switch's state is updated to reflect the state of the device.

So if you are going to respond to a switch in NetDaemon you must subscribe to its commands and then set state manually:

  var switch1Id = "switch.switch_one";
var onCommand = "ON";
var offCommand = "OFF";

// Create the switch and set its on and off commands
await _entityManager.CreateAsync(switch1Id,
new EntityCreationOptions(Name: "Switch One", PayloadOn: onCommand, PayloadOff: offCommand))

// Subscribe to the switch command, setting the state to equal that command
(await _entityManager.PrepareCommandSubscriptionAsync(switch1Id).ConfigureAwait(false))
.Subscribe(new Action<string>(async state =>
await _entityManager.SetStateAsync(switch1Id, state).ConfigureAwait(false);

A humidity sensor with availability and custom unit-of-measurement

This example creates a sensor that uses "up" and "down" to mark its availability, and records the level of rain in terms of millimeters per hour. It takes advantage of availability payloads, a specific device class ("humidity") and a custom additional-config.

Finally, we set the sensor as being available and record three different measures.

var rainNexthour4Id = "sensor.rain_nexthour4";
await _entityManager.CreateAsync(rainNexthour4Id, new EntityCreationOptions(
Name: "Rain Next Hour4",
DeviceClass: "humidity",
PayloadAvailable: "up",
PayloadNotAvailable: "down"
new {
unit_of_measurement = "mm/h" }

await _entityManager.SetAvailabilityAsync(rainNexthour4Id, "up").ConfigureAwait(false);
await _entityManager.SetStateAsync(rainNexthour4Id, "11").ConfigureAwait(false);
await _entityManager.SetStateAsync(rainNexthour4Id, "7").ConfigureAwait(false);
await _entityManager.SetStateAsync(rainNexthour4Id, "1").ConfigureAwait(false);

Remove an entity

await _entityManager.RemoveAsync("sensor.my_id").ConfigureAwait(false);

Advanced example - device with sensors

In each of the previous examples we showed how to set up an individual sensor. But what if you want to create a device with multiple sensors?

In the following code example we define a new Device called "Car Charger", which is a fictitious brand of EV charger. Within that devices we have five sensors that measure:

  • Temperature, in °C
  • Progress from 0 to 100%
  • Voltage, in volts
  • Battery charge as a percentage
  • Current mode, e.g. "Charging" or "Idle"

The trick here is to create five unique sensors but have them all refer to a single Device, which will show that device on the Home Assistant UI with the sensors underneath.

The five sensors also share a single state topic, which means that we can update all values (or a subset) with a single call.

// This device will have five sensors. We tie all of the sensors together
// by sharing the same `identifiers` list with each sensor.
var identifiers = new[] { "car_charger" };

// It is important that all sensors share the same State Topic so that
// we can update all values in one go.
// You will see that in each sensor, the `value_template` defines how
// we extract the sensor value from the multiple update.
var stateTopic = "homeassistant/sensor/car_charger/state";

// First we define the device that will own all the sensors. This is passed
// when we create the first of the sensors.
var device = new { identifiers = identifiers, name = "Car Charger", model = "ABC X1", manufacturer = "Voltium", sw_version = 1.22 };

// Create the first sensor for temperature. This requires a unique entity ID
// and value_template, but needs to include the shared state topic and device info
await _entityManager.CreateAsync("sensor.car_charger_temperature", new EntityCreationOptions
Name = "Temperature",
DeviceClass = "temperature",
}, new
unit_of_measurement = "\u00b0C",
state_topic = stateTopic, // Note the override of the state topic
value_template = "{{ value_json.temperature }}", // and value from state
device // Links the sensors together

// The next sensor is charging progress, so again has a unique entity ID and value
// template, and also shares the state topic and device info
await _entityManager.CreateAsync("sensor.car_charger_progress", new EntityCreationOptions
Name = "Progress"
}, new
unit_of_measurement = "%",
icon = "mdi:progress-clock",
state_topic = stateTopic,
value_template = "{{ value_json.progress }}",

// Then a voltage sensor
await _entityManager.CreateAsync("sensor.car_charger_voltage", new EntityCreationOptions
Name = "Voltage",
DeviceClass = "voltage"
}, new
unit_of_measurement = "V",
state_topic = stateTopic,
value_template = "{{ value_json.voltage }}",

// ...followed by a battery sensor. This has a special meaning in Home Assistant
// as entities with the device class of `battery` can be used in automations to
// identify which are running low
await _entityManager.CreateAsync("sensor.car_charger_battery", new EntityCreationOptions
Name = "Battery",
DeviceClass = "battery"
}, new
unit_of_measurement = "%",
state_topic = stateTopic,
value_template = "{{ value_json.battery }}",

// and finally, a mode sensor that can be represented as a string
await _entityManager.CreateAsync("sensor.car_charger_mode", new EntityCreationOptions
Name = "Mode",
}, new
icon = "mdi:list-status",
state_topic = stateTopic,
value_template = "{{ value_json.mode }}",

// Now that we have everything set up we can post an update to the shared state topic.
// This needs to be a JSON string comprising all of the values we want to set so let's
// start with a dynamic object and then JSON it
var newState = new
temperature = 47,
progress = 75,
voltage = 23,
battery = 19,
mode = "Charging"

await _entityManager.SetStateAsync("sensor.car_charger", JsonSerializer.Serialize(newState));


Is the broker running

The first thing you should do is verify that an MQTT broker (like Mosquitto) is up and running in Home Assistant.

To do this, go to your "Add-ons" menu in Home Assistant's Settings menu and verify that the broker is installed. Check its configuration tab and verify that the "Network" configuration matches your settings as described in the Setup section above.

You can also check the logs for the broker add-on in the same area.

If you continue to have configuration problems with the broker please refer to the official Home Assistant MQTT Broker documentation.

Check the Home Assistant logs

The next step is to check the HA logs to see whether any errors are being logged by the MQTT Entity Manager. To do this, within Home Assistant, go to Settings and System and click on the Logs option.

By default, HA will only show logs for items that it thinks are important, so be sure to click the button to "Show full logs".

Once you have the full logs open search for "mqtt" and check for any errors.

Configuring detailed logging

If you are continuing to have issues, especially if they are intermittent, then the next best step is to enable detailed logging for the underlying MQTT Entity Manager.

Unfortunately there is no way to do this with the standard logging that ships with NetDaemon. However, it is very straightforward to configure a custom logger that will allow you to show detailed logging. The good news is that once you have configured that custom logger you'll probably not want to go back to the original!

This change of logger only needs to be done once and after that you can tweak the logging config within your appsettings.json.

There is a whole page dedicated to custom logging so just pop over there, get that up and running and then return to this page...

You're back! Ok - the next thing we need to do is enable verbose logging for the MQTT Entity Manager, which you can do within your appsettings.json file. Find the Override section, add a new entry for NetDaemon.Extensions.MqttEntityManager and set it to Verbose:

"Serilog": {
"MinimumLevel": {
"Default": "Warning",
"Override": {
"System": "Information",
"Microsoft": "Information",
"System.Net.Http.HttpClient": "Warning",
"NetDaemon.Extensions.MqttEntityManager": "Verbose"

Now redeploy / restart your app and you should start to see logging from the NetDaemon.Extensions.MqttEntityManager namespace.

If you are seeing a lot of logging and you want to turn it down to a part of the entity manager code then tweak that namespace to be one of the classes within the code. You can browse the code (and contribute!) over on GitHub.